Amirabad Pathobiology and Virology Laboratory


Parainfluenza Viruses

Date: 3 سال قبل

author: AmirAbad

Parainfluenza Viruses
Clinical Manifestations
Parainfluenza viruses cause mild or severe upper and lower respiratory tract infections, particularly in children.
Classification and Antigenic Types
Human parainfluenza viruses are divided into types 1, 2, 3, and 4; type 4 consists of A and B subtypes.
Transmission is by droplets or direct contact. The virus disseminates locally in the ciliated epithelial cells of the respiratory mucosa.
Host Defenses
Nonspecific defenses, including interferon, are followed by the appearance of secretory and humoral antibodies and cell-mediated immune responses.
Parainfluenza virus diseases occur worldwide; they are usually endemic but sometimes epidemic. Primary infections occur in young children; reinfection is common but results in milder disease.
Clinical symptoms are nonspecific. Laboratory diagnosis is made by detecting viral antigen, by isolating the virus, or by detecting a rise in antibody titer or elevated IgG- and IgA- (IgM-) antibodies in a single serum.
No vaccine is available

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