Amirabad Pathobiology and Virology Laboratory


EBV virus from signs to symptoms

Date: 2 سال قبل

author: AmirAbad

EBV Virus (Epstein–Barr virus)
The Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), formally called Human gammaherpesvirus 4, is one of the nine known human herpesvirus types in the herpes family, and is one of the most common viruses in humans. EBV is a double-stranded DNA virus.
It is best known as the cause of infectious mononucleosis ("mono" or "glandular fever").  
Infection with EBV occurs by the oral transfer of saliva and genital secretions. Most people become infected with EBV and gain adaptive immunity. In the United States, about half of all five-year-old children and about 90% of adults have evidence of previous infection. Infants become susceptible to EBV as soon as maternal antibody protection disappears. Many children become infected with EBV, and these infections usually cause no symptoms or are indistinguishable from the other mild, brief illnesses of childhood. In the United States and other developed countries, many people are not infected with EBV in their childhood years. When infection with EBV occurs during adolescence, it causes infectious mononucleosis 35 to 50% of the time.
EBV infects B cells of the immune system and epithelial cells.
Infectious mononucleosis
EBV causes infectious mononucleosis. Children infected with EBV have few symptoms or can appear asymptomatic, but when infection is delayed to adolescence or adulthood, it can cause fatigue, fever, inflamed throat, swollen lymph nodes in the neck, enlarged spleen, swollen liver, or rash.Post-infectious chronic fatigue syndrome has also been associated with EBV infection.
Symptoms of EBV infection can include:
·       fatigue
·       fever
·       inflamed throat
·       swollen lymph nodes in the neck
·       enlarged spleen
·       swollen liver
·       rash
After you get an EBV infection, the virus becomes latent (inactive) in your body. In some cases, the virus may reactivate. This does not always cause symptoms, but people with weakened immune systems are more likely to develop symptoms if EBV reactivates.
EBV is spread by saliva through:
·       kissing
·       sharing drinks and food
·       using the same cups, eating utensils, or toothbrushes
·       having contact with toys that children have drooled on
Diagnosing EBV infection can be challenging because the symptoms are similar to other illnesses. EBV infection can be confirmed with a blood test that detects antibodies. About nine out of ten of adults have antibodies that show that they have a current or past EBV infection.
Prevention & Treatment
There is no vaccine to protect against EBV infection.
There is no specific treatment for EBV. However, some things can be done to help relieve symptoms, including:
·       drinking fluids to stay hydrated
·       getting plenty of rest
taking over-the-counter medications for pain and fever

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